Get to Know Two Cannabinoids That Make Marijuana a Powerful Plant

THC and CBD – Two major cannabinoids found in cannabis.

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The cannabis plant has different types of cannabinoids, and the main cannabinoid that gives cannabis a bad rep is Tetrahydrocannabinol or THC.

But not all the effects of THC are bad.

Take away their psychoactive effects and you have a compound so powerful it can inhibit the inflammatory process.

Inflammation is good. It’s normal. It’s how our body fights diseases.

But did you know that inflammation is one of the causative factors that worsen many diseases?

  • Epilepsy is worsened by neuroinflammation and release of excitatory neurotransmitters.
  • Multiple sclerosis, a disease that destroys the myelin sheath of axons, starts from an abnormal immune response to the axon’s myelin.
  • Arthritis, especially rheumatoid arthritis – the culprit is an abnormal immune response.

THC inhibits the pro-inflammatory process by stopping the recruitment of more immune cells and inducing immune cell death.

Other effects of THC include modulation of physiological processes responsible for mood, sleep, appetite, memory, anxiety, etc.

But THC, when it stimulates the CB1 receptors, produces psychedelic effects and is responsible for the “high” and addiction associated with marijuana use. It is precisely because of these effects that our legislators demonized marijuana and deemed marijuana use illegal…and why some of them still hesitate legalizing medical cannabis.

Enter Cannabidiol. CBD.

You will fall in love with this cannabinoid just like I did.

I’d like to think that CBD is THC’s gentle sister, but I would be doing THC an injustice because THC, though it has side effects, has so many medicinal potentials. Together, and with the right proportions, CBD can even boost THC’s benefits while counteracting its negative effects.

I’ll tell you more about how CBD does that in a while.

CBD offers the same benefits that THC has, but it does not produce the ‘high” and it is not addictive. It has little binding affinity with the endocannabinoid CB1 receptors like THC does to produce psychoactive effects.

But CBD says “If I can’t directly activate the CB1 active receptors, I’ll bind with other receptors and influence them!”

Because that’s what CBD does. It binds with other receptors and stimulates them.

  • In pain? Here…let me stimulate your capsaicin receptors. Let me overstimulate them so desensitization happens sooner. Think of applying a capsaicin ointment on your skin. You’ll first feel a painful, burning sensation…then blessed pain-free numbness.
  • Anxious? Here…let me tell your serotonin receptors to slow down its reabsorption of serotonin. With more serotonin in your system, you’ll feel better soon. Oh, and I can also help your depression by keeping your serotonin level up.
  • Stressed? Relax. Breathe. Hey, GABA receptors, let me help you by enhancing your affinity with GABA. With this inhibitory neurotransmitter activating more of you, you’ll soon calm down.
  • Spastic? Here…let me calm your motor activities down. Glutamate receptors, speed up your reuptake of glutamate already! Too much of this excitatory neurotransmitter in the synapses worsen spasticity.
  • Cancer? I’m sorry. Hey, orphan receptors, please tell the cancer cells to stop proliferating. Oh, and PPARs? Could you please help the orphan receptors and do your thing to stop cancer cells from growing. And epithelial cells, stop giving life to cancer growth. Don’t proliferate and build them blood vessels.
  • Alzheimer’s? PPARs, activate! Inhibit neuroinflammation. Block amyloid-beta from building plaques!

The best thing about CBD, in addition to influencing so many receptors, is that it protects healthy and non-transformed cells.  This means that while CBD works its magic, it’s protecting the healthy cells…which makes it the perfect add-on treatment for chemotherapy. It does not kill the normal cells like chemotherapy does but protects them.

Want more?

CBD also stops the side effects associated with chemotherapy. It can control pain, nausea, and vomiting.

Inflammation? Oh my dear overactive immune cells. Let me stimulate your CB2 receptors and induce caspase signaling to start your programmed cell death. Don’t worry, I’m not hurting all immune cells. Only those of you who worsen the inflammatory process. With these gone, the tissues will have more time to heal.

Oh, I nearly forgot!

Inflammation, when it worsens that it can no longer be controlled by the immune cells that regulate the proinflammatory response, damages healthy tissues. The proinflammatory cells are left to recruit more immune cells to the area. More immune cells mean more cytokine production. Because cytokines send signals to recruit more immune cells, this will ultimately lead to tissue necrosis because the damaged cells also leak destructive enzymes and proteins that destroy neighboring cells, even the healthy ones. Because the cells are damaged…yeah, you get the drift. More immune cells.

CBD also induces cell death, but through a process called apoptosis or programmed cell death. Here, only the damaged cell itself is affected, so it will not leak destructive enzymes and proteins. Once it’s dead, the macrophages will come and get rid of it.

The beauty of CBD is that it induces apoptosis of proinflammatory cells, the immune cells that produce cytokines. It can stop inflammation from worsening.

Okay. Let’s now go to CBD and THC and how they can work together.

For THC to produce its medicinal effects, it has to activate the CB1 receptors. But activating these receptors will make you “high.”

How then can CBD stop the psychedelic effects of THC when it has little affinity with the CB1 receptors and has no way of influencing it?

Here’s how CBD becomes sneaky.

Listen carefully because this is one of my favorite CBD effects…and I bet you’ll love it, too.

CBD can bind with CB1 receptors, but not with the receptor’s active site which THC binds with. CBD – this sneaky, beautiful cannabinoid – binds with the receptor’s allosteric site. And when it does this, it changes the size and shape of the active site, making it difficult for THC to fit into it. Nice, eh?

Here’s another way how CBD stops THC’s bad effects. THC, to produce its hallucinogenic effects, has to be degraded into its metabolite form by the cytochrome p450 enzymes of the liver.  In its metabolite form, THC becomes an even more potent hallucinogenic compound.

But what CBD does is to compete with THC by binding with the cytochrome p450 enzymes and then deactivate them. With fewer cytochrome p450 enzymes to bind with, THC isn’t broken down into its metabolite form. It can create its wonders but produce less psychoactive effects.

Want to know CBD more?

It can help your endocannabinoids stay longer in your system!

How?

It stops the transport of endocannabinoids toward the enzymes that break it down by binding with the transporters themselves. With these inhibited, there will be more endogenous cannabinoids doing their thing!

There are other cannabinoids worth mentioning, but for now, let’s focus on these two. They are, after all, the most studied.

Medical cannabis can do wonders to people who are suffering from diseases and disorders. Maybe even better than the medications they have right now, which, let’s be honest, sometimes don’t work and have very serious side effects. Cannabis has a very good safety profile, effective, and is very well-tolerated by patients.

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Our body produces marijuana-like compounds, and no, it doesn’t make you an addict.

Surprised?

I completely understand how you feel.

First time I read about it, I was suprised, too.

Now, listen, because what I’m going to tell you is a fact, and not just some weird thing I read.

You know that marijuana, in the ancient times, has been used to treat diseases – infection, inflammation, seizures, obesity, pain, arthritis, muscle spasticity, etc. It only became illegal because of racism.

And greed. Oh, how pharmaceutical companies would love to dominate the health market!

Anyway, back to the human body.

It was discovered in the 1990s that there are special systems in our cells that play a vital role in promoting balance and homeostasis. These systems are primarily found in the neurons of the brain and spinal cord as well as the cells of the organs and especially immune system. They’re found all over the body, really! Each system has receptors, two of which became the focus of medical research.

It was also discovered that our body produces special (very, very special) compounds or molecules that bind to these receptors, activating them to produce their beneficial effects.

These molecules, they found out, are very similar to the compounds (phytocannabinoids) found in cannabis. So they called them endocannabinoids, which means endogenous cannabinoids or cannabinoids produced by the human body. The special systems were called the endocannabinoid system and their receptors CB1 and CB2.

Endocannabinoids are fascinating. While neurotransmitters are produced and released by the presynaptic cells upon a stimulus and travel to the postsynaptic cells to transmit the signal, endocannabinoids are produced by the postsynaptic cells and travel to the presynaptic cells.

In a nutshell, the neurotransmitters travel in a forward direction, carrying the signal to the next cell. Endocannabinoids, on the other hand, travel in a backward direction.

So why is this important?

Here is how endocannabinoids get even more interesting.

Since it travels in a backward direction, it can influence how the presynaptic cells perceive and transmit the signal.

Still with me?

Let’s say the stimulus is pain. Neurotransmitters responsible for pain perception will be produced, and they will carry the signal for pain to the next cell, and on, and on till it reaches the part of the brain that tells your body how to react.

Now, endocannabinoids are also produced and released into the synapses in response to the stimulus. Because it stimulates the presynaptic cells’ endocannabinoid receptors, it tells them “Hey, calm down. Balance and homeostasis, remember?”

And the response?

The presynaptic cells reduce their release of neurotransmitters for pain, effectively reducing the pain you feel.

Activation of the cannabinoid receptors modulates the release of neurotransmitters and influence the body’s physiological response to a variety of stimulus to promote homeostasis within the body.

So now you’re wondering…why do we still need marijuana when our own body produces its own marijuana-like chemicals?

Because, my dears, even before our endocannabinoids produce their widespread beneficial effects, enzymes are already breaking them down for reabsorption back into the cells.

So their effects are short-lived.

And so marijuana’s phytocannabinoids has the potential to help our endocannabinoid system bring homeostasis back within the body.

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Will the Real “Gateway Drug” Please Stand Up

Is cannabis the real gateway drug?

Cannabis is the gateway drug. We’ve all heard it before and many have used this “fact” to prevent the legalization of medical cannabis, but is it really? Is cannabis really the gateway drug as some anti-cannabis supporters cry?

The Reefer Madness Era

The Reefer Madness era successfully demonized cannabis, despite its many medicinal properties. Anti-cannabis propagandas further conditioned the minds of people to think that cannabis is the gateway drug, that it’s the cause of hit-and-run accidents, rape, murder, theft and burglary, and suicide.

Sadly, many believed these propagandas. What used to be a medically-valuable plant was reduced to nothing but an evil drug that causes people to commit heinous crimes and acts of lasciviousness. Because of these anti-cannabis propagandas, millions of patients were denied of a powerful medicine that could have helped them.

The Gateway Drug Theory

The Gateway Drug Theory states that the use of licit drugs like alcohol and tobacco (and even cannabis) pave the way for the use of and dependence on harder and stronger illicit drugs. Unfortunately, cannabis bore the brunt of this, with some research studies suggesting that cannabis is the gateway drug and that cannabis users are more likely to develop drug addiction problems than those who do not use cannabis.

A Study to Dispute Cannabis as the Gateway Drug

One study though had been conducted to dispute this knowledge and prove that cannabis isn’t the gateway drug, that if there’s one drug to blame for the progression from licit to illicit substance abuse it’s alcohol.

The University of Florida researchers used the data collected via a survey called Monitoring the Future conducted by the University of Michigan. This survey tracked the use of drugs among youths as well as their drug use trends. Using a nationally-representative sample of 14,577 12th-grade students (high school seniors) from 120 schools (both private and public), the researchers analyzed the youths’ initiation to drugs, including alcohol, cannabis, and tobacco using a Guttman scale.

They found out those who drink alcohol are 13 times more likely to indulge in cigarettes compared to non-drinkers. Their study also revealed that drinkers are 16 times more likely to try cannabis and other types of narcotics and that they are also 13 times more likely to try cocaine than those who don’t drink alcohol. Additionally, their study also showed that a huge percentage of the high school seniors (72.2%) have tried alcohol, compared to tobacco use of 45% and cannabis use of 43.3%.

Clearly, their findings suggest that it is alcohol that’s the gateway drug, not cannabis. It is alcohol consumption that can make students try tobacco, cannabis, and other illegal drugs. The results also indicated that students who consume alcohol are more likely to try both licit as well as illicit drugs.

Addressing the Issue

Faced with this new data, the researchers urged schools as well as public health officials to look into alcohol abuse and its potential impact on the use of other licit and illicit drugs. Alcohol, their study concluded, should be given primary attention when it comes to substance abuse prevention programs conducted by schools and that prevention efforts should be made to address alcohol use in adolescents.

Cannabis has so many medicinal benefits, but unfortunately, it’s still deemed illegal in most places and considered evil by many people. This study showed that cannabis isn’t the gateway drug, but alcohol, a socially-acceptable drug, is. Because alcohol increases the likelihood of using other harder drugs, schools should address alcohol consumption in youths in their substance abuse prevention programs.

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Can You Overdose on Cannabis?

One man’s feat just showed the world that you can’t die from cannabis overdose. What he did was not just smoked a regular cannabis joint, mind you, but smoked a 22.5-g dab in four minutes of continuous dab hit!

What is a Dab?

Dabbing, for those who don’t understand this popular craze, gives a more powerful effect compared to simply smoking a joint. Dabs are made by extracting THC from the plant using butane gas as its solvent. Once you have the extract (also called butane hash oil or dab), you smoke it using either a pen vaporizer or a bong.

Dabs contain a very high concentration of THC at about 70% to 90%, so you can expect its effects to be even more potent than a regular joint. Once you inhaled its vapors, you get a speedy, very powerful high, so care should be taken especially if it’s going to be your first dab. A little dab can go a long way, as they say, so go slow.

For Mountain Man, however, a little dab was not enough.

Setting a Record

Ever think of what consuming 22.5 grams of cannabis will do to you in just four minutes? It sounds like a lot! Surely, no one is that brave enough to consume that much cannabis.

But Mountain Man did. He didn’t just smoke a regular joint; he smoked 22.5 grams of dab at a 2015 event hosted by a cannabis club in Denver, Colorado.

During the session, Mountain Man took no breaks to catch his breath, except for a brief 20-second pause where he held his breath to prepare the second dab on the red-hot nail. Then he got right back to it and finished the last 11-gram stretch. Mountain Man just inhaled pure THC vapor in four minutes, a continuous dab hit that earned him the “World’s Biggest Dab Hit” record.

So what happened later?

He coughed some; his body shook; and he was red all over from the coughing. But after resting for a while, he was back on his feet. Mountain Man survived the biggest dab hit witnessed by man.

Indeed, it was insanity at its finest, as the man who ran the dab rig said.

Cannabis overdose doesn’t kill. There are no records yet that prove it does. In fact, as stated in the 1988 cannabis rescheduling petition, you would have to consume about 1,500 pounds of cannabis within 15 minutes for the lethal dose to kill you, an amount way too large for an average dose (about 20,000 to 40,000 times higher)…an impossible amount no normal person can consume in one sitting.

An average dose of cannabis won’t induce a lethal response, and Mountain Man’s 2015 feat of 22.5-g dab in four minutes is a documentation of that.

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Grab a Pen! Here’s How You Make Rick Simpson Oil

Rick Simpson is a medical cannabis activist from Canada. His oil became popular and sought-after when he cured his skin cancer with his homemade cannabis oil. But it wasn’t the first time he used cannabis oil for his medical problem though.

The first time he used it was for his severe post-concussion syndrome, which he sustained in a work-related accident in 1997. He was given medications for his symptoms, of course, but they were not enough to control them. Instead of helping relieve his symptoms, the drugs only made him feel worse.

It was a documentary about medical cannabis that piqued his interest in trying it for his post-concussion syndrome. But having no way of acquiring the medicine, he decided to make his own. He found that his oil was able to not only cure his post-concussion symptoms but the drugs’ side effects as well!

In 2002, Rick suffered a setback. He found three lesions on his body, which were suspected to be basal cell carcinoma. He had the lesion on his left cheek excised, but after a few days, the wound got infected.

It was one of the lowest points in his life when he remembered the medical cannabis documentary he saw, so he decided to try his cannabis oil on his lesions again. He applied a few drops on his lesions and covered them with a sterile bandage. When he checked his lesions after about four days, to his pleasant surprise, the lesions were gone!

So he told his doctor how his cannabis oil cured his lesions, but unfortunately, his doctor wanted none of it. He was told, too, that using cannabis will bring nothing but trouble.

But Rick Simpson is determined to show to the world that cannabis can cure, and he is just as determined in helping people benefit from his cannabis oil. So he started cultivating cannabis, making more of his oils, and giving them for free to friends and family who need his oil.

It wasn’t all good for Rick Simpson and his oil though, despite the fact that his oil is helping so many patients. Numerous raids were done on his property, and he was called a lot of names including drug pusher. But despite that, his cannabis oil became so popular that it even reached the media, putting his town and his cannabis oil in the spotlight.

Rick Simpson has since stopped making his cannabis oil, after the Canadian police did a final raid on his property. Any Rick Simpson Oil you see in cannabis stores isn’t his original oil, but if you’re interested in recreating his cannabis oil, here’s a good “recipe” to follow.

Important Things to Note

Before making your own Rick Simpson Oil, here are some precautions to remember:

  1. Make sure you are in a well-ventilated area since the fumes from the solvent can be pretty toxic and flammable as well.
  2. Use a mask and avoid breathing in too much of the fumes.
  3. See to it that there are no flammable materials nearby. You don’t want sparks and flames anywhere near your work area.
  4. You can make use of a fan to promote good airflow underneath the rice cooker and prevent the accumulation of fumes. Set it at its lowest speed setting; it’s enough to produce enough air to dispel the toxic fumes from accumulating underneath the cooker.

What You Need

Here are the things you will need for your Rick Simpson Oil:

  1. 450 to 500 grams of cannabis buds, preferably high-quality indica strain that contains at least about 20% THC.
  2. 8 to 9 liters of 99% isopropyl alcohol.
  3. 5-gallon container.
  4. Metal container.
  5. Electric rice cooker.
  6. You can also make use of a coffee warmer or your oven.
  7. Electric fan.
  8. Funnels.
  9. Coffee filters or cheesecloth.
  10. 2×2 piece of wood for stirring.
  11. Plastic syringes, with their needles removed.
  12. Pot holders to prevent burns.
  13. Mask.

Steps and Directions

Use the mask to avoid inhaling the fumes, and see to it that the room you’re working in is well-ventilated to prevent accidents and problems.

  1. Place the cannabis buds inside the container and pour in a portion of your solvent. Make sure that the solvent totally covers the buds.
  2. Crush the cannabis buds with the wood and then add in the remaining solvent, again making sure that the buds are covered.
  3. Stir the mixture until the two ingredients are thoroughly mixed.
  4. Strain the cannabis-solvent mixture into a new, clean container, using the funnel and the coffee filter or cheesecloth to catch the starting material.
  5. Give the starting material a second washing by pouring fresh solvent and stirring the mixture until the cannabis buds are thoroughly dissolved.
  6. Strain the second wash using your funnel and coffee filter and add the cannabis-solvent mixture from the second wash into the container containing the first wash.
  7. Pour some of your cannabis-solvent mixture into your electric rice cooker and switch it on. Do not cover the cooker though. Instead, leave it open when you’re boiling the solvent off. See to it, too, that the temperature doesn’t get over 300-degree Fahrenheit as it can burn and destroy the cannabinoids. Ideal temperature of the cooker should be between 210 and 230-defree Fahrenheit.
  8. Switch the electric fan to its lowest setting, making sure that it’s aimed at the cooker to dispel fumes and prevent sparks.
  9. Add in more of the mixture as the solvent evaporates and the level of the mixture drops. It’s important that you don’t pour in all of the mixture at once. You want enough room for the mixture to boil but not go over the sides of the pot. You need to prevent splashes which could easily cause a fire since the solvent is flammable.
  10. When there’s only about 2 inches of the cannabis-solvent mixture left inside the cooker, add in about 10 to 12 drops of clean water. The extra liquid helps boil off whatever solvent is remaining in the mixture and prevent burning as well.
  11. Using the pot holders, remove the inner pot from the cooker and gently swirl the mixture around so any remaining solvent can evaporate.
  12. Once done, pour the cannabis oil into your metal container and place the container on top of your coffee warmer or dehydrator. Again, the low heat will allow both solvent and water to evaporate, leaving you with cannabis oil.
  13. Let the cannabis oil bubble gently over low heat for about a couple of hours to remove excess water.
  14. When you’re left with nothing but the cannabis oil and you can no longer see any bubbling activities, let the oil cool a little bit first before drawing the oil up into your needleless syringes.

Of note; you can also use your oven if you don’t have a coffee warmer or dehydrator. Simply set your oven to 250-degree Fahrenheit, place the container inside the oven once it has reached that temperature, and let it simmer for 30 minutes to about an hour.

The Finished Product

The whole process will take you about three to four hours, and it will yield about 3 to 4 grams of very potent, high-THC cannabis oil. As for the cannabis oil, the finished product that you want to see is a cannabis oil that is thick like grease in consistency and appearance.

Storing the Cannabis Oil

Rick Simpson Oil has a long shelf-life, but if you want to preserve it better, you need to store it in a cool, dark place. Also, you might want to keep the syringes in a steel container, with the lid tightly closed.

Using the Cannabis Oil

It’s normal for the cannabis oil to thicken once it’s cool. If you’re having a hard time forcing the oil out from the syringe, simply place the syringe in a cup of hot water to warm it up. Once the oil is a little bit warm, you can then easily squeeze it out. If you have squeezed too much cannabis oil out, simply draw the excess oil back in.

Waste Not, Want Not

Here’s a tip that you might be interested in.

It’s normal for some cannabis oil residue to remain in the pot after storing them in the syringe. But instead of washing it off though, you can warm it up a little and scrape it off using a bread. You now have a cannabis-infused edible! Just don’t eat everything though in one sitting! You will want to assess the effects of a small nibble first before eating more.

So, there you have it…your very own Rick Simpson Oil!

Rick Simpson claims that he cured his cancer with his oil, with many recipients of his cannabis oils supporting him. Although he’s no longer making his cannabis oils, you can still make your own at home. Just follow the easy and simple steps above, especially minding the precautions, and you’ll soon have your own Rick Simpson Oil.

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Why You Need Precision Climate Control Platform for Your Cannabis Facility

The cannabis industry is rapidly growing, and it will continue to grow as more and more states legalize cannabis use.

However, the cannabis industry is relatively young. Like any new industry, there are bound to be problems that will challenge all those involved in the cannabis industry – from the growers to even their construction companies.

Two big challenges most growers face right now is preventing mold and mildew and controlling pests.

While pesticides and fungicides typically get rid of them, the use of these products isn’t recommended in the cannabis industry, especially if the products are to be used medically. Should the cannabis product contain traces of these chemicals, the cannabis producers could face serious liabilities if they don’t issue a product recall.

So, how can these problems be addressed properly?

One way to control these problems is through the use of precision climate control systems. These systems can not only control the grow room’s temperature and humidity, but they can also sanitize the air as well through the use of air filters and ultraviolet rays.

By controlling the grow room’s atmosphere, mold and mildew can be prevented without stressing the plants further. The ultraviolet rays, on the other hand, can kill pathogens such as fungus and bacteria. It can also kill the mold spores. Once the air is sanitized, it will be released back into the grow room.

The reflectors also reduce the heat coming from the light bulbs. They help maintain the best temperature for the plants to grow and, at the same time, deliver more light to your plants.

Precision climate control systems are cost and energy efficient. Not only will these systems allow the growers to cut down on their operational costs, but they can also help the growers improve their plants’ quality and increase their production.

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Pathophysiology and Treatment of Stress and Anxiety Disorders

Stress and anxiety are a normal part of life. However, if these feelings persist for more than three months that they’re already affecting your day-to-day life, then it’s time to give your doctor a visit.  What you’re going through may no longer be just a simple response to normal stressors, but a disorder that needs to be addressed properly.

What happens in stress and anxiety?

Stress and anxiety are stimuli that trigger a cascade of signals in the brain. The stressor will trigger the hypothalamus to secrete hormones. Excitatory neurotransmitters will also be released.  These will travel to other parts of the brain like the pituitary gland, adrenal gland, and amygdala and will stimulate them to produce and release chemicals involved in the flight or fight response. Pulse and respiratory rate will increase; muscles will tense up; and GI symptoms will also be present like nausea and vomiting. Other symptoms include increased anxiety, fear, shortness of breath, etc. will also be felt. Once the stressor has passed, everything will go back to normal. The hormones and neurotransmitters will be reabsorbed back into the cells and their effects inhibited.

However, in people suffering from stress and anxiety disorders, the effects are more pronounced and last longer.  The exact cause of this disorder isn’t clearly defined, but studies have shown that an imbalance in the hormones and neurotransmitters responsible for the fight or flight response seems to play a role. They are abnormally higher in people suffering from the disorder, so the attacks are easily triggered and the symptoms are worse and prolonged.

How to deal with stress and anxiety disorders

Medications are typically given to patients suffering from stress and anxiety disorders. These work to normalize the hormone and neurotransmitter levels. For example, since serotonin (an inhibitory neurotransmitter that promotes mood stability) is low in this type of mental disorder and excitatory neurotransmitters like glutamate and norepinephrine are high, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are given to inhibit the reuptake of serotonin. With more serotonin in the brain, it can balance out the high level of excitatory neurotransmitters and their effects.

In addition to medications, there are healthy foods you can also incorporate into your diet that can help boost your serotonin level.  These do not contain serotonin though, but they are high in tryptophan which is a precursor to serotonin.  Some of these include banana, tomato, pineapple, and walnuts.  Salmon, turkey, and tofu are also good sources of tryptophan.

Another way that you can boost your serotonin level is to have a regular exercise regimen. Studies have shown that exercise, particularly aerobic exercise, can increase the production and release of serotonin.

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